DIABETES MELLITUS
Description


 
  Symptoms
Abdominal pain Appetite - increase Behaviour - irritability
Breathing - disorder Breathing - smells Dehydration
Drowsiness Fatigue / exhaustion Foot - swollen
Hand - swollen Heart - beat increase Impotence
Limb - numbness Nausea Skin - dry scaly
Skin - itching Skin - infections Skin - poor healing
Thirst Toes - numbness Urination - frequent
Urination - excessive Vision - blurred Vomiting
Weight - gain Weight - loss  
  Description
Diabetes mellitus, commonly referred as diabetes, is a group of metabolic diseases characterized by high blood sugar (glucose) levels that result from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both. Elevated levels of blood glucose (hyperglycemia) lead to spillage of glucose into the urine.

The female hormone estrogen typically makes cells more responsive to insulin.

In a healthy person, the blood glucose level is regulated by several hormones, including insulin, which is produced by the pancreas. People with diabetes either do not produce enough insulin (type 1 diabetes) or cannot use insulin properly (type 2 diabetes). There are other types of diabetes as Gestational (during pregnancy), Ketoacidosis (when the body can not use the glucose as fuel), Hyperosmolar Coma, which is a complication syndrome related to the type 2, Congenital (due to genetic defects of insulin secretion), Cystic Fibrosis, Steroid (induced by high doses of glucocorticoids), and several forms of monogenic diabetes.
   Diagnosis
The following tests can help to diagnose the disease and its type:

- Urine test.

- Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) test, which is a primary test for prediabetes.

- Fasting plasma glucose test, in which the blood sample is taken after an overnight food abstention.

- Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT or GTT), which requires 8 hours of food abstention before the test.
   More information:
Diabetes Mellitus Treatment
Diabetes Mellitus Healthcare Centers
 

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