depend on the type of stone. They are much less invasive than in the past and
(for uric acid stones)
(for struvite stones)
bicarbonate or sodium citrate
is needed if the stone is too large and is blocking the urine flow.
Shock waves lithotripsy:
It uses sound waves to break up stones.
In this procedure the stone is removed with a tube inserted through a small surgical cut.
Mainly used when stones are located in the lower urinary tract.